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Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Induces Mitochondrial Apoptosis and Suppresses Metastasis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Vivo

Daisuke Takeda1, Takumi Hasegawa1*, Takeshi Ueha2, Yusuke Imai1,/

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-Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan,
-NeoChemir, Kobe, Japan,
-Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan, Division of Rehabilitation

ABSTRACT

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the main histological type of oral cancer. Its growth rate and incidence of metastasis to regional lymph nodes is influenced by various factors, including hypoxic conditions. We have previously reported that transcutaneous CO2 induces mitochondrial apoptosis and decreases lung metastasis by reoxygenating sarcoma cells. However, previous studies have not determined the sequential mechanism by which transcutaneous CO2 suppresses growth of epithelial tumors, including SCCs. Moreover, there is no report that transcutaneous CO2 suppresses lymphogenous metastasis using human cell lines xenografts. In this study, we examined the effects of transcutaneous CO2 on cancer apoptosis and lymphogenous metastasis using human SCC xenografts. Our results showed that transcutaneous CO2 affects expressions of PGC-1a and TFAM and protein levels of cleavage products of caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP, which relatives mitochondrial apoptosis. They also showed that transcutaneous CO2 significantly inhibits SCC tumor growth and affects expressions of HIF-1a, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9, which play essential roles in tumor angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. In conclusion, transcutaneous CO2 suppressed tumor growth, increased mitochondrial apoptosis and decreased the number of lymph node metastasis in human SCC by decreasing intra-tumoral hypoxia and suppressing metastatic potential with no observable effect in vivo. Our findings indicate that transcutaneous CO2 could be a novel therapeutic tool for treating human SCC.

 

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Web access: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4079455/ 

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